How non-uniform tolerance parameter strategy changes the response of scale-free networks to failures
School of Traffic and Transportation, Beijing Jiaotong University, 100044, Beijing, P.R. China
2 National Key Laboratory Railway Traffic and safety, Beijing Jiaotong University, 100044, Beijing, P.R. China
Revised: 22 August 2007
Published online: 5 October 2007
In this paper, we introduce a non-uniform tolerance parameter (TP) strategy (the tolerance parameter is characterized by the proportion between the unused capacity and the capacity of a vertex) and study how the non-uniform TP strategy influences the response of scale-free (SF) networks to cascading failures. Different from constant TP in previous work of Motter and Lai (ML), the TP in the proposed strategy scales as a power-law function of vertex degree with an exponent b. The simulations show that under low construction costs D, when b>0 the tolerance of SF networks can be greatly improved, especially at moderate values of b; When b<0 the tolerance gets worse, compared with the case of constant TP in the ML model. While for high D the tolerance declines slightly with the b, namely b<0 is helpful to the tolerance, and b>0 is harmful. Because for smaller b the cascade of the network is mainly induced by failures of most high-degree vertices; while for larger b, the cascade attributes to damage of most low-degree vertices. Furthermore, we find that the non-uniform TP strategy can cause changes of the structure and the load-degree correlation in the network after the cascade. These results might give insights for the design of both network capacity to improve network robustness under limitation of small cost, and for the design of strategies to defend cascading failures of networks.
PACS: 89.75.Hc – Networks and genealogical trees / 89.75.Fb – Structures and organization in complex systems / 89.40.Bb – Land transportation / 89.20.Hh – World Wide Web, Internet
© EDP Sciences, Società Italiana di Fisica, Springer-Verlag, 2007