Dynamical stability of systems with long-range interactions: application of the Nyquist method to the HMF model
Université de Toulouse, UPS, Laboratoire de Physique Théorique (IRSAMC), 31062 Toulouse, France CNRS, Laboratoire de Physique Théorique (IRSAMC), 31062 Toulouse, France
Published online: 21 May 2009
We apply the Nyquist method to the Hamiltonian mean field (HMF) model in order to settle the linear dynamical stability of a spatially homogeneous distribution function with respect to the Vlasov equation. We consider the case of Maxwell (isothermal) and Tsallis (polytropic) distributions and show that the system is stable above a critical kinetic temperature Tc and unstable below it. Then, we consider a symmetric double-humped distribution, made of the superposition of two decentered Maxwellians, and show the existence of a re-entrant phase in the stability diagram. When we consider an asymmetric double-humped distribution, the re-entrant phase disappears above a critical value of the asymmetry factor Δ > 1.09. We also consider the HMF model with a repulsive interaction. In that case, single-humped distributions are always stable. For asymmetric double-humped distributions, there is a re-entrant phase for 1 ≤ Δ < 25.6, a double re-entrant phase for 25.6 < Δ < 43.9 and no re-entrant phase for Δ > 43.9. Finally, we extend our results to arbitrary potentials of interaction and mention the connexion between the HMF model, Coulombian plasmas and gravitational systems. We discuss the relation between linear dynamical stability and formal nonlinear dynamical stability and show their equivalence for spatially homogeneous distributions. We also provide a criterion of dynamical stability for spatially inhomogeneous systems.
PACS: 05.20.-y – Classical statistical mechanics / 05.45.-a – Nonlinear dynamics and chaos / 05.20.Dd – Kinetic theory / 64.60.De – Statistical mechanics of model systems
© EDP Sciences, Società Italiana di Fisica, Springer-Verlag, 2009