Regular Article - Solid State and Materials
Description of Shapiro steps on the potential energy surface of a Frenkel–Kontorova model, Part II: free boundaries of the chain
Mathematisches Institut, Universität Leipzig, PF 100920, 04009, Leipzig, Germany
2 Departament de Química Inorgànica i Orgànica, Secció de Química Orgànica, and Institut de Química Teòrica i Computacional, (IQTCUB), Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, 08028, Barcelona, Spain
Accepted: 2 March 2021
Published online: 20 March 2021
We explain Shapiro steps in a Frenkel–Kontorova (FK) model for a 1D chain of particles with free boundaries. The action of an external alternating force for the oscillating structure of the chain is important here. The different ’floors’ of the potential energy surface (PES) of this model play an important role. They are regions of kinks, double kinks, and so on. We will find out that the preferable movements are the sliding of kinks or antikinks through the chain. The more kinks / antikinks are included the higher is the ’floor’ through the PES. We find the Shapiro steps moving and oscillating anywhere between the floors. They start with a single jump over the highest SP in the global valley through the PES, like in part I of this series. They finish with complicated oscillations in the PES, for excitations directly over the critical depinning force. We use an FK model with free boundary conditions. In contrast to other results in the past, for this model, we obtain Shapiro steps in an unexpected, inverse sequence. We demonstrate Shapiro steps for a case with soft ’springs’ between an 8-particle FK chain.
© The Author(s) 2021
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