Thermodynamics of continuous media with electromagnetic fields
Institute of Condensed Matter Physics, Station 3, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne – EPFL, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
Received: 3 August 2012
Received in final form: 24 October 2012
Published online: 20 December 2012
The thermodynamics of an electrically charged, multicomponent continuous medium with electromagnetic fields is analysed in the non-relativistic limit. Applying locally the first and second law of thermodynamics and Maxwell’s equations for a linear theory of electromagnetism, three equations characterising the continuous medium are derived: a thermostatic equilibrium equation, a reversible and an irreversible thermodynamic evolution equation. For a local thermodynamic equilibrium, explicit expressions for the temperature and the chemical potentials in terms of the electromagnetic fields are obtained. The linear phenomenological relations describe novel effects of non-uniform electromagnetic fields on the transport equations and account also for magnetoresistance and optical tweezers.
Key words: Solid State and Materials
© EDP Sciences, Società Italiana di Fisica and Springer-Verlag, 2012