Exploring weight-dependent density-functional approximations for ensembles in the Hubbard dimer★
Laboratoire de Chimie Quantique, Institut de Chimie, CNRS/Université de Strasbourg,
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Received in final form: 9 May 2018
Published online: 16 July 2018
Gross–Oliveira–Kohn density-functional theory (GOK-DFT) is an extension of DFT to excited states where the basic variable is the ensemble density, i.e. the weighted sum of ground- and excited-state densities. The ensemble energy (i.e. the weighted sum of ground- and excited-state energies) can be obtained variationally as a functional of the ensemble density. Like in DFT, the key ingredient to model in GOK-DFT is the exchange-correlation functional. Developing density-functional approximations (DFAs) for ensembles is a complicated task as both density and weight dependencies should in principle be reproduced. In a recent paper [K. Deur et al., Phys. Rev. B 95, 035120 (2017)], the authors applied exact GOK-DFT to the simple but nontrivial Hubbard dimer in order to investigate (numerically) the importance of weight dependence in the calculation of excitation energies. In this work, we derive analytical DFAs for various density and correlation regimes by means of a Legendre–Fenchel transform formalism. Both functional and density driven errors are evaluated for each DFA. Interestingly, when the ensemble exact-exchange-only functional is used, these errors can be large, in particular if the dimer is symmetric, but they cancel each other so that the excitation energies obtained by linear interpolation are always accurate, even in the strongly correlated regime.
© EDP Sciences / Società Italiana di Fisica / Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature, 2018