Non-adiabatic extension of the Zak phase and charge pumping in the Rice–Mele model
Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University,
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Received in final form: 16 June 2019
Published online: 4 September 2019
In this study, the Landau–Zener (LZ) transition method is applied to investigate a weak non-adiabatic effect on the Zak phase and the topological charge pumping in the Rice–Mele model. The non-adiabatic effect is formulated using the LZ transfer matrix. The effective lower band wave function picks up the Stokes phase as well as the usual dynamical phase through two avoided crossings appearing in the two band instantaneous energy spectrum. The interference effect from the upper band has a decisive influence on the decay behavior of the lower band population. A non-adiabatic extension of the Zak phase can then be formulated, corresponding to the center of mass of the lower band Wannier function. Furthermore, we estimate the validity of the LZ formalism and verify the breakdown of the quantization of the topological charge pumping by changing the sweeping speed.
Key words: Solid State and Materials
© EDP Sciences / Società Italiana di Fisica / Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature, 2019